Prevention and control of violence and aggression in football fans: Implications for sport psychologists, fans, and policymakers

Maryam Mokhtari Dinani, Abbas Rezaei Pandari, Zahra Divjan, Asghar Afshar Jahanshahi

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

1 Cita (Scopus)


This research was conducted to design an interpretive structural model of factors affecting the prevention and control of violence and aggression in football fans. The statistical population of this study was entirely composed of sport experts, executive managers, sociologists, and management professors in Iran. Thirteen individuals were accordingly selected as the research sample using non-probability purposeful sampling. The effective factors were identified through library study and reviewing the theoretical foundations and research background. Confirming the content validity of these factors by considering experts’ opinions, 14 factors were finally identified. The interrelationships between the factors were determined using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM), and network analysis based on Decision Making and Trial Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) was also employed to measure their importance, ranking them accordingly. The factors were categorized into four levels according to ISM. The highest level (first level) includes “match day service quality,” “fair refereeing,” “consolidation of social ties,” and “cognitive reconstruction of fans.” The second level contains “design, protection, and security of stadiums,” “patterning and identification,” and “use of calming techniques.” “Awareness and informing” and “anger control training” belong to the third level, while the lowest level (fourth level) includes “media,” “fan organizations,” “laws, regulations, and security solutions,” “moral education or persuasion,” and “teaching communication skills to fans.” Among them, the last level is fundamental, influencing the other factors. The results obtained in this work can be used as a basis for policymaking to reduce violence and aggression among football fans.

Idioma originalInglés
PublicaciónJournal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
EstadoAceptada/en prensa - 2023


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