Murine Mammary Carcinoma Induces Chronic Systemic Inflammation and Immunosuppression in BALB/c Mice

Dasha Fuentes, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Circe Mesa, Tania Carmenate, Darel Martínez, Anet Valdés-Zayas, Enrique Montero, Rolando Pérez

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva


Purpose: The F3II cell line is a highly invasive variant of mammary carcinoma. Although it is frequently used as a model to evaluate the efficacy of immunotherapy, its impact on the immune system remains poorly understood. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of F3II tumors on the development of chronic inflammation and to characterize tumor-associated immunosuppression. Methods: Following the experimental implantation of F3II tumors in BALB/c mice, alterations in the liver and spleen anatomy and the numbers of circulating leukocytes, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and regulatory T cells were measured using hematological techniques, histopathological analysis, and flow cytometry. The capacity of the F3II tumor-bearing mice to reject MB16F10 allogeneic tumor transplantation was also evaluated. In addition, the restoration of immune parameters in tumor-bearing mice was evaluated after standard breast cancer chemotherapy and surgical tumor excision. Results: F3II tumor implantation increased the levels of chronic inflammatory markers, such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios, and caused myeloid alterations, including extramedullary granulopoiesis and megakaryopoiesis, along with the recruitment of MDSCs to the spleen. Chemotherapy or surgical F3II tumor removal completely rescued the tumor-associated extramedullary granulopoiesis and megakaryopoiesis. Notably, the presence of F3II tumors reduced the capacity of BALB/c mice to reject MB16F10 allogeneic tumor transplantation. Conclusion: These results support the occurrence of F3II tumor-mediated immune cell dysfunction, which mimics the immune alterations characterized by chronic systemic inflammation and immunosuppression observed in breast cancer in clinical settings. Thus, the F3II tumor model is relevant for evaluating novel breast cancer immunotherapies and combinations in preclinical studies. This model could also be useful for identifying appropriate therapeutic targets and developing proof-of-concept experiments in the future.

Idioma originalInglés
Páginas (desde-hasta)218-232
Número de páginas15
PublicaciónJournal of Breast Cancer
EstadoPublicada - jun. 2022
Publicado de forma externa


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