Mineral paragenesis and sulphide trace element distribution in the metamorphosed Lovisa Zn-Pb deposit, Bergslagen (Sweden), as revealed by 3D X-ray tomography, ore petrography and LA-ICP-MS analysis

Stefan S. Andersson, Fredrik Sahlström, Erik Jonsson, Stefan Luth, Edward P. Lynch, Karin Högdahl, Thomas Zack, Nils Gies, Stefan Sädbom, K. S. Alexander Hansson, Mikael Bergqvist

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Resumen

This study encompasses the ore mineralogy, textures and sulphide trace element chemistry of the Palaeoproterozoic Lovisa stratiform Zn-Pb deposit and the stratigraphically underlying Lovisa Fe Formation in the Bergslagen ore province (Sweden). We investigate the relative timing of formation and subsequent modifications of its ores in relation to the c. 1.87–1.80 Ga Svecokarelian orogeny. The Lovisa Zn-Pb deposit consists of several different ore types. The massive sphalerite-galena ore is distinctly deformed, exhibiting a multiple-scale “ball ore” texture with rounded silicate clasts within a deformed, fine-grained sulphide matrix. Underlying the massive ore is a locally folded, sphalerite-rich laminated ore, interpreted to represent a metamorphosed relict primary lamination. Several generations of sphalerite-galena fracture fillings and veins occur adjacent to the main ore zones and they cross-cut early ductile structures and metamorphic features. The trace element signatures of the sphalerite-galena infillings generally mimic those of the two main ore zones, thus supporting an origin by localised remobilisation of the primary sulphide ore and demonstrating limited trace element redistribution during this process. In contrast, discrete sulphosalt-rich fracture fillings cross-cutting earlier galena-chalcopyrite-rich fracture fillings and veinlets in the Lovisa Fe Formation suggest a significant but still relatively localised redistribution of metals. Trace element mapping of sulphides from the Lovisa Zn-Pb deposit reveals that inclusion-free overgrowths on pyrite crystals are locally Co-enriched compared to the cores, which resulted from the redistribution of Co during late metamorphic processes. Combined textural and geochemical evidence suggest that the originally syngenetic exhalative sulphide ore at Lovisa was locally strongly affected by polyphase deformation and remobilisation. This was initiated during the first stage of amphibolite facies grade regional metamorphism and deformation (D1, c. 1.87–1.85 Ga) but is mostly evident from the later stages (D2) and the evolution to retrograde and brittle conditions (c. 1.83–1.80 Ga and later).

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo104611
PublicaciónOre Geology Reviews
Volumen140
DOI
EstadoPublicada - ene. 2022
Publicado de forma externa

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