Maturity characterization of soot in laminar coflow diffusion flames of methane/anisole under different oxygen indices

C. Barrera, V. Castro, F. Escudero, J. J. Cruz, I. Verdugo, J. Yon, A. Fuentes

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

Resumen

Anisole fuel has gained increased attention, since it is considered a biofuel, and its addition to gasoline increases the octane number, improving the engine performance. This study focuses on the comprehensive characterization of soot maturity and sooting propensity of a well-controlled laminar coflow diffusion flame fueled with anisole and using methane as the carrier gas. Four laminar non-premixed flames were established below the smoke point. The oxidizer composition ranged from a molar fraction of oxygen (oxygen index, OI) of 21% to 35% (doped with pure oxygen), while keeping constant the total volumetric flow rate of oxidizer stream. Multi-wavelength line-of-sight attenuation experiments were performed from visible to infrared wavelengths, and the measurements of the extinction coefficient and flame temperature were used to retrieve two dimensional fields of soot temperature, volume fraction, radiative intensity and degree of soot maturity. In general, the sooting propensity and radiative behavior of the anisole flames follows a similar trend than typical hydrocarbon fuels when increasing the OI. However, the spatial distribution of soot volume fraction is enhanced, particularly near the flame centerline. In contrast, the soot production is promoted by the OI, near the flame wings. The same effect can be observed for the soot temperature. Indeed, temperature increases, promoting formation and oxidation processes, specially at the locations near the maximum soot volume fraction. In general, the maturity of soot particles is affected as the OI is changed. Also, it is observed that the degree of maturity is enhanced by flame temperature. In order to support these local observations, a statistical analysis was carried out. Finally, the results obtained yield a curated database for validating detailed soot production models of oxygenated fuels, and to gain further insights on the evolution of soot maturity and propensity of these particular fuels under different oxidizer conditions.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo111101
PublicaciónExperimental Thermal and Fluid Science
Volumen151
DOI
EstadoPublicada - 1 feb. 2024
Publicado de forma externa

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