Formation of aromatic compounds precursors during fermentation of Criollo and Forastero cocoa

Efraín M. Castro-Alayo, Guillermo Idrogo-Vásquez, Raúl Siche, Fiorella P. Cardenas-Toro

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77 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

There are three main genetic varieties of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) used in chocolate making: Forastero, Trinitario and Criollo, which are distinguished by their aroma, an attribute that determines their quality. Criollo cocoa is of the highest quality and is used in the manufacture of fine chocolates because of its fruity aroma. The aroma of Criollo cocoa is defined by volatile compounds such as pyrazines and aldehydes, which are formed during roasting of the bean, from aroma precursors (reducing sugars and free amino acids) that are generated inside the bean via enzymatic reactions during fermentation; for this reason, fermentation is the most important process in the value chain. This review discusses the production of aroma precursors of Criollo and Forastero cocoa by studying the kinetics of spontaneous fermentation and the role of starter cultures to produce aroma precursors. Fine aroma precursors produced in the pulp during the fermentation phase will migrate into the bean when it's permeability is improved and then retained during the drying phase. Diffusion of aroma precursors into the cocoa bean may be possible, this process is mathematically characterized by the coefficient of molecular diffusion D, which describe the process of mass transfer via Fick's Second Law. The current state of knowledge is analyzed based on existing research and reports some gaps in the literature, suggesting future research that will be necessary for a better understanding of cocoa fermentation.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículoe01157
PublicaciónHeliyon
Volumen5
N.º1
DOI
EstadoPublicada - ene. 2019

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