Combined X-Ray Computed Tomography and X-Ray Fluorescence Drill Core Scanning for 3-D Rock and Ore Characterization: Implications for the Lovisa Stratiform Zn-Pb Deposit and Its Structural Setting, Bergslagen, Sweden

Stefan Luth, Fredrik Sahlström, Mikael Bergqvist, Alexander Hansson, Edward P. Lynch, Stefan Sädbom, Erik Jonsson, Stefan S. Andersson, Nikolaos Arvanitidis

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

2 Citas (Scopus)

Resumen

We present the results of a pilot study that integrates automated drill core scanning technology based on simultaneous X-ray computed tomography (XCT) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses to provide high-spatial-resolution (<0.2 mm) information on 3-D rock textures and structures, chemical composition, and density. Testing of its applicability for mineral exploration and research was performed by scanning and analyzing 1,500 m of drill core from the Paleoproterozoic Lovisa stratiform Zn-Pb sulfide deposit, which is part of a larger mineral system also including Cu-Co and Fe-(rare earth element) mineralization, hosted by the highly strained West Bergslagen boundary zone in south-central Sweden. The obtained scanning data complements data derived from structural field mapping, drill core logs, and chemical analysis as well as from multiscale 3-D geologic modeling at Lovisa. Data integration reveals macro- and mesoscopic folding of S0/S1 by asymmetric steeply SE-plunging F2 folds and N-striking vertical F3 folds. Stretching lineations, measured directly from the scanning imagery, trend parallel to F2 fold hinges and modeled ore shoots at the nearby Håkansboda Cu-Co and Stråssa and Blanka Fe deposits. The textural character of the Lovisa ore zones is revealed in 3-D by XCT-XRF scanning and highlight remobilization of Zn and Pb from primary layering into ductile and brittle structures. The downhole bulk geochemical trends seen in scanning and traditional assay data are generally comparable but with systematic variations for some elements due to currently unresolved XRF spectral overlaps (e.g., Co and Fe). The 3-D deformation pattern at Lovisa is explained by D2 sinistral transpression along the West Bergslagen boundary zone in response to regional north-south crustal shortening at ca. 1.84–1.81 Ga. Local refolding was caused by D3 regional east-west crustal shortening resulting in dextral transpression along the West Bergslagen boundary zone, presumably at ca. 1.80–1.76 Ga. Based on polyphase ore textures and modeled ore shoots aligned to F2 fold hinges, we postulate that D2 and D3 transpressive deformation exerted both a strong control on ore remobilization and the resulting orebody geometries at Lovisa and neighboring deposits within the West Bergslagen boundary zone. We conclude that the combined XCT-XRF drill core scanning technique provides a valuable tool for 3-D ore and rock characterization, generating continuous downhole data sets, with the potential for increasing precision and efficiency in mineral exploration and mining.

Idioma originalInglés
Páginas (desde-hasta)1255-1273
Número de páginas19
PublicaciónEconomic Geology
Volumen117
N.º6
DOI
EstadoPublicada - set. 2022

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