Simulation of Shake Table Tests on Out-of-Plane Masonry Buildings. Part (IV): Macro and Micro FEM Based Approaches

César Chácara, Nuno Mendes, Paulo B. Lourenço

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


This article presents a study on the out-of-plane response of two masonry structures without box behavior tested in a shaking table. Two numerical approaches were defined for the evaluation, namely macro-modeling and simplified micro-modeling. As a first step of this study, static nonlinear analyses were performed for the macro models in order to assess the out-of-plane response of masonry structures due to incremental loading. For these analyses, mesh size and material model dependency was discussed. Subsequently, dynamic nonlinear analyses with time integration were carried out, aiming at evaluating the collapse mechanism and at comparing it to the experimental response. Finally, nonlinear static and dynamic analyses were also performed for the simplified micro models. It was observed that these numerical techniques correctly simulate the in-plane response. The collapse mechanism of the stone masonry model is in good agreement with the experimental response. However, there are some inconsistencies regarding the out-of-plane behavior of the brick masonry model, which required further validation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-116
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Architectural Heritage
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2 Jan 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • collapse mechanism
  • masonry structures
  • nonlinear analyses
  • numerical modeling
  • out-of-plane behavior


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