Overirradiance conditions and their impact on the spectral distribution at low- and mid-latitude sites

Marco Antonio Zamalloa-Jara, Miguel Ángel Sevillano-Bendezú, Carolin Ulbrich, Gustavo Nofuentes, Rolf Grieseler, Jan Amaru Töfflinger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Lately, the photovoltaics community has shown an increased interest in overirradiance conditions as there is the possibility that such conditions might lead to malfunctions in photovoltaic systems. Varying irradiance levels, recurrence, and duration of such conditions have been reported worldwide, but experimental studies on the spectral distribution of overirradiance conditions are still scarce. This work analyses measured spectral irradiance of overirradiance conditions along with spectra under clear and cloudy sky conditions in three different sites at low- (Lima-Peru) and mid-latitudes (Madrid-Spain and Berlin-Germany) collected for two years. The Average Photon Energy (APE) was used as a representative index of the spectral distribution. For each site, taking the APE under clear sky into account as a reference, it could be shown that the spectra under cloudy skies are blue-shifted, and the overirradiance spectra are red-shifted independently of the location. The red-shift is proportional to the irradiance enhancement intensity. In addition, all sites have different degrees of blue–shift for cloudy skies, with Lima, Madrid, and Berlin exhibiting a difference in APE compared to clear sky conditions of 17 meV, 38 meV, and 43 meV on average, respectively. This difference in APE for the overirradiance conditions compared to clear sky conditions is also independent of the location with a mean value of (8 ± 1) meV. These spectral shift observations experimentally confirm prior assumptions that overirradiance conditions predominantly cause an enhancement of the direct spectral irradiance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-106
Number of pages8
JournalSolar Energy
StatePublished - 15 Jul 2023


  • Average photon energy
  • Cloud enhancement
  • Overirradiance
  • Solar resource
  • Solar spectrum


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