Non-electromagnetic fields that satisfy Maxwell equations

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We report three non-electromagnetic fields, which satisfy Maxwell equations. The very existence of these fields challenges the view that Maxwell equations hold only for electromagnetic fields. The reported fields are velocity fields that belong to a massive, charged particle. They are gauge-related to electromagnetic vector potentials. The significance of the vector potential has been repeatedly addressed until recent times in the pursue of reaching a self-consistent formulation of classical electrodynamics (CED). This is an important goal, because CED has a wide domain of validity and because it serves as a model for several quantum field theories. Our results exhibit the existence of some rather unexpected ties between Maxwell and Lorentz equations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number129031
JournalPhysics Letters, Section A: General, Atomic and Solid State Physics
StatePublished - 5 Sep 2023


  • Classical electrodynamics
  • Maxwell equations
  • Non-electromagnetic fields


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