Intertwined realities — hybrid institutions in the Peruvian fisheries and aquaculture sectors

Gerardo H. Damonte, Lotta C. Kluger, Isabel E. Gonzales

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Following pro-market policies, the Peruvian state has aimed to regulate profitable fisheries and aquaculture activities in order to increase their production. However, informal and illegal activities not only persist but are also interlinked with formal practices and frameworks, creating intertwined realities in fostering processes of institutional hybridization. This article analyses the (re)production of informal and illegal activities by explaining the formation of hybrid institutional entanglements in the Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) fishery in Pisco and the Peruvian bay scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) aquaculture industry in Sechura. It argues that state policies to promote industrial fisheries and entrepreneurial aquaculture for the global market coupled with limited interest in supporting small-scale fisheries and aquaculture activities have resulted in processes of institutional hybridization. Within these processes, social actors resist and accommodate formal regulatory frameworks to suit their respective needs, while intertwining formal and informal practices and institutional arrangements, based on their political leverage or ability to produce hybrid institutional entanglements in a context where regulation is limited and state authority is negotiated. Under these forms of hybrid governance, the article shows that interactions between state and non-state actors do not lead to collaborations for solving problems but to the persistence of sustainability problems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number20
JournalMaritime Studies
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • Aquaculture
  • Fisheries
  • Hybrid institutions
  • Peru
  • Regulation
  • Sustainability


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