Frequent behavioral delay tendencies by adults: International prevalence rates of chronic procrastination

Joseph R. Ferrari, Juan Francisco Díaz-Morales, Jean O'Callaghan, Karem Díaz, Doris Argumedo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

116 Scopus citations


Adult men (n = 582) and women (n = 765) from six nations (Spain, Peru, Venezuela, the United Kingdom, Australia, and the United States) completed two reliable and valid measures of chronic procrastination. Because both arousal and avoidant procrastination types were significantly related across the entire sample (r =.72, p .001) and within each national sample, regression analyses calculated pure arousal and pure avoidant procrastinators, controlling for the scale scores of the other scale. Results indicated no significant sex or nationality differences within and between nations on self-reported arousal or avoidant procrastination. Overall, 13.5% and 14.6% of men and women self-identified as either arousal or avoidant procrastinators, respectively. These findings suggest that the tendency toward frequent delays in starting or completing tasks may be prevalent across diverse populations in spite of their distinct cultural values, norms, and practices.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)458-464
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Chronic procrastination
  • Cultural nationalities
  • Prevalence rates


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