Enablers and barriers to adopt the locally developed Masi mechanical ventilator amid COVID-19 pandemic in Peru

Stephanie Montero, Gloria Morón, Giuliana Arrunategui-Salas, Fanny L. Casado, Benjamin Castaneda, Gabriela Salmon-Mulanovich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Limited supply of resources during the COVID-19 emergency encouraged the local development of the Masi mechanical ventilator (MV). Despite the efforts to promote Masi, adopting this innovation faced multiple obstacles, regardless of its performance. We explored the perceptions among healthcare personnel towards incorporating Masi to provide ventilatory support to COVID-19 patients during the second wave in Peru (January to June 2021). Methods: We conducted twelve in-depth virtual interviews. Topics included experience when handling Masi, the impact of the training received, confidence in the device, barriers perceived, and enablers identified. All participants provided verbal informed consent. Results: Most of the participants were male physicians. Participants belonged to seven hospitals that exhibited a wide range of healthcare capacities. Globally, the adoption of Masi MV was driven by the scarcity of ventilatory devices in the wards and reinforced by appropriate training and prompt technical support. Participants reported that Masi's structural and operational features played both advantages and disadvantages. Hospital infrastructure readiness, availability of commercial MVs, mistrust in its simple appearance, and resistance to change among healthcare personnel were perceived as barriers, while low-cost, prompt technical support and user-friendliness were valuable enablers. The first two enablers were observed in participants regardless of their attitude towards Masi. Despite the small number of participants for this qualitative study, it is important to note that the sample size was sufficient to reach saturation, as the topics discussed with participants became redundant and did not yield new information. Conclusions: The perceptions among healthcare personnel to incorporate Masi as a mechanical ventilator for COVID-19 patients showed that communication, training and experience, and peer encouragement were essential to secure its use and sustainability of the technology. A priori judgments and perceptions unrelated to the performance of the novel device were observed, and its proper management may define its further implementation. Altogether our study suggests that along with strengthening local technological development, strategies to improve their adoption process must be considered as early as possible in medical innovations.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere19586
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2023


  • ARDS
  • Adoption
  • Biomedical technology
  • COVID-19
  • Emergency care
  • Mechanical ventilators
  • Qualitative research


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