Completing the progression establishing an international baseline of primary, middle and secondary students’ views of scientific inquiry

Judith S. Lederman, Selina Bartels, Juan Jimenez, Norman G. Lederman, Katherine Acosta, Karina Adbo, Valarie L. Akerson, Mariana a.Bologna Soares de Andrade, Lucy Avraamidou, Kerry Anne Barber, Estelle Blanquet, Saouma Boujaoude, Rosa Cardoso, Claire Dresslar Cesljarev, Pawat Chaipidech, Catherine Pozarski Connolly, David T. Crowther, Pabi Maya Das, Özgür Kivilcan Dogan, Ani EpitropovaNaruho Fukuda, Lichun Gai, Soraya Hamed, Cigdem Han-Tosunoglu, Gary M. Holliday, Xiao Huang, Rola Khishfe, Anna Koumara, Elianna Kraan, Jari Lavonen, Jessica Shuk Ching Leunga, Yanmei Li, Mila Rosa Librea-Carden, Cheng Liu, Shiang Yao Liu, Kendra McMahon, Marlene Morales, Patricia D. Morrell, Irene Neumann, Jisun Park, Mafor Penn, Eric Picholle, Katerine Plakitsi, Umesh Ramnarain, Zhelyazka Raykova, Arantza Rico, Fátima Rodríguez-marín, Aritz Ruiz-González, Carl Johan Rundgren, Richard Deanne Sagun, Suvi Salonen, Hui Shao, Niwat Srisawasdi, Aik Ling Tan, Radu Bogdan Toma, Tshering, Zeynep Ünsal, Clara Vidal Carulla, Jana Visnovska, Frauke Voitle, Yalcin Yalaki, Hye jin Yoo, Quianyun Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Knowledge of scientific inquiry (SI) is considered essential to the development of an individual's Scientific Literacy (SL) and therefore, SI is included in many international science education reform documents. Two previous large scale international studies assessed the SI understandings of students entering middle school and secondary students at the end of their formal K-12 science education. The purpose of this international project was to use the VASI-E to collect data on what primary level students have learned about SI in their first few years of school. This study adds to previous research to bridge the landscape of SI understandings now with representation from primary, middle and high school samples. A total of 4,238 students from 35 countries/regions spanning six continents participated in the study. The results show that globally, primary students are not adequately informed about SI for their age group. However, when compared with the students in the previous international studies (grades seven and 12), the primary students' understandings were surprisingly closer to the levels of understanding of SI of the secondary school students than those in the seventh grade study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)715-731
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Science Education
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2024


  • Scientific inquiry
  • international investigation


Dive into the research topics of 'Completing the progression establishing an international baseline of primary, middle and secondary students’ views of scientific inquiry'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this