Amber from western Amazonia reveals Neotropical diversity during the middle Miocene

Pierre Olivier Antoine, Dario De Franceschi, John J. Flynn, André Nel, Patrice Baby, Mouloud Benammi, Ysabel Calderón, Nicolas Espurt, Anjali Goswami, Rodolfo Salas-Gismondi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

67 Scopus citations


Tertiary insects and arachnids have been virtually unknown from the vast western Amazonian basin. We report here the discovery of amber from this region containing a diverse fossil arthropod fauna (13 hexapod families and 3 arachnid species) and abundant microfossil inclusions (pollen, spores, algae, and cyanophyceae). This unique fossil assemblage, recovered from middle Miocene deposits of northeastern Peru, greatly increases the known diversity of Cenozoic tropical-equatorial arthropods and microorganisms and provides insights into the biogeography and evolutionary history of modern Neotropical biota. It also strengthens evidence for the presence of more modern, high-diversity tropical rainforest ecosystems during the middle Miocene in western Amazonia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)13595-13600
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number37
StatePublished - 12 Sep 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Arachnida
  • Hexapoda
  • Microorganisms
  • Pebas formation
  • Peru


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