A Paleogenomic Reconstruction of the Deep Population History of the Andes

Nathan Nakatsuka, Iosif Lazaridis, Chiara Barbieri, Pontus Skoglund, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Cosimo Posth, Kelly Harkins-Kinkaid, Matthew Ferry, Éadaoin Harney, Megan Michel, Kristin Stewardson, Jannine Novak-Forst, José M. Capriles, Marta Alfonso Durruty, Karina Aranda Álvarez, David Beresford-Jones, Richard L. Burger, Lauren Cadwallader, Ricardo FujitaJohny Isla, George Lau, Carlos Lémuz Aguirre, Steven LeBlanc, Sergio Calla Maldonado, Frank Meddens, Pablo G. Messineo, Brendan J. Culleton, Thomas K. Harper, Jeffrey Quilter, Gustavo Politis, Kurt Rademaker, Markus Reindel, Mario A. Rivera, Lucy Salazar, José R. Sandoval, Calogero M. Santoro, Nahuel A. Scheifler, Vivien G. Standen, Maria Ines Barreto, Isabel Flores Espinoza, Elsa Tomasto Cagigao, Guido Valverde, Douglas J. Kennett, Alan Cooper, Johannes Krause, Wolfgang Haak, Bastien Llamas, David Reich, Lars Fehren-Schmitz

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57 Scopus citations


There are many unanswered questions about the population history of the Central and South Central Andes, particularly regarding the impact of large-scale societies, such as the Moche, Wari, Tiwanaku, and Inca. We assembled genome-wide data on 89 individuals dating from ∼9,000-500 years ago (BP), with a particular focus on the period of the rise and fall of state societies. Today's genetic structure began to develop by 5,800 BP, followed by bi-directional gene flow between the North and South Highlands, and between the Highlands and Coast. We detect minimal admixture among neighboring groups between ∼2,000–500 BP, although we do detect cosmopolitanism (people of diverse ancestries living side-by-side) in the heartlands of the Tiwanaku and Inca polities. We also highlight cases of long-range mobility connecting the Andes to Argentina and the Northwest Andes to the Amazon Basin. Video Abstract: [Figure presented] Genome-wide data from 89 ancient humans illuminates the changes to the genetic landscape in the Central Andes over 9,000 years, revealing large-scale gene flow and cosmopolitan societies in the Tiwanaku and Inca polities.
Original languageSpanish
Pages (from-to)1131-1144999999999999972737024
StatePublished - 28 May 2020

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